Changes between Initial Version and Version 1 of TracStandalone

08/07/15 22:11:27 (5 years ago)



  • TracStandalone

    v1 v1  
     1= Tracd
     3Tracd is a lightweight standalone Trac web server.
     4It can be used in a variety of situations, from a test or development server to a multiprocess setup behind another web server used as a load balancer.
     6== Pros
     8 * Fewer dependencies: You don't need to install apache or any other web-server.
     9 * Fast: Should be almost as fast as the [wiki:TracModPython mod_python] version (and much faster than the [wiki:TracCgi CGI]), even more so since version 0.12 where the HTTP/1.1 version of the protocol is enabled by default
     10 * Automatic reloading: For development, Tracd can be used in ''auto_reload'' mode, which will automatically restart the server whenever you make a change to the code (in Trac itself or in a plugin).
     12== Cons
     14 * Fewer features: Tracd implements a very simple web-server and is not as configurable or as scalable as Apache httpd.
     15 * No native HTTPS support: [ sslwrap] can be used instead,
     16   or [trac:wiki:STunnelTracd stunnel -- a tutorial on how to use stunnel with tracd] or Apache with mod_proxy.
     18== Usage examples
     20A single project on port 8080. (http://localhost:8080/)
     22 $ tracd -p 8080 /path/to/project
     24Strictly speaking this will make your Trac accessible to everybody from your network rather than ''localhost only''. To truly limit it use ''--hostname'' option.
     26 $ tracd --hostname=localhost -p 8080 /path/to/project
     28With more than one project. (http://localhost:8080/project1/ and http://localhost:8080/project2/)
     30 $ tracd -p 8080 /path/to/project1 /path/to/project2
     33You can't have the last portion of the path identical between the projects since Trac uses that name to keep the URLs of the
     34different projects unique. So if you use `/project1/path/to` and `/project2/path/to`, you will only see the second project.
     36An alternative way to serve multiple projects is to specify a parent directory in which each subdirectory is a Trac project, using the `-e` option. The example above could be rewritten:
     38 $ tracd -p 8080 -e /path/to
     41To exit the server on Windows, be sure to use `CTRL-BREAK` -- using `CTRL-C` will leave a Python process running in the background.
     43== Installing as a Windows Service
     45=== Option 1
     46To install as a Windows service, get the [ SRVANY] utility and run:
     48 C:\path\to\instsrv.exe tracd C:\path\to\srvany.exe
     49 reg add HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\tracd\Parameters /v Application /d "\"C:\path\to\python.exe\" \"C:\path\to\python\scripts\\" <your tracd parameters>"
     50 net start tracd
     53'''DO NOT''' use {{{tracd.exe}}}.  Instead register {{{python.exe}}} directly with {{{}}} as a parameter.  If you use {{{tracd.exe}}}, it will spawn the python process without SRVANY's knowledge.  This python process will survive a {{{net stop tracd}}}.
     55If you want tracd to start automatically when you boot Windows, do:
     57 sc config tracd start= auto
     60The spacing here is important.
     63Once the service is installed, it might be simpler to run the Registry Editor rather than use the `reg add` command documented above.  Navigate to:[[BR]]
     66Three (string) parameters are provided:
     67||!AppDirectory ||C:\Python26\ ||
     68||Application ||python.exe ||
     69||!AppParameters ||scripts\ -p 8080 ... ||
     71Note that, if the !AppDirectory is set as above, the paths of the executable ''and'' of the script name and parameter values are relative to the directory.  This makes updating Python a little simpler because the change can be limited, here, to a single point.
     72(This is true for the path to the .htpasswd file, as well, despite the documentation calling out the /full/path/to/htpasswd; however, you may not wish to store that file under the Python directory.)
     75For Windows 7 User, srvany.exe may not be an option, so you can use [ WINSERV] utility and run:
     77"C:\path\to\winserv.exe" install tracd -displayname "tracd" -start auto "C:\path\to\python.exe" c:\path\to\python\scripts\ <your tracd parameters>"
     78net start tracd
     81=== Option 2
     83Use [ WindowsServiceScript], available at [ Trac Hacks]. Installs, removes, starts, stops, etc. your Trac service.
     85=== Option 3
     87also cygwin's cygrunsrv.exe can be used:
     89$ cygrunsrv --install tracd --path /cygdrive/c/Python27/Scripts/tracd.exe --args '--port 8000 --env-parent-dir E:\IssueTrackers\Trac\Projects'
     90$ net start tracd
     93== Using Authentication
     95Tracd allows you to run Trac without the need for Apache, but you can take advantage of Apache's password tools (htpasswd and htdigest) to easily create a password file in the proper format for tracd to use in authentication. (It is also possible to create the password file without htpasswd or htdigest; see below for alternatives)
     97Make sure you place the generated password files on a filesystem which supports sub-second timestamps, as Trac will monitor their modified time and changes happening on a filesystem with too coarse-grained timestamp resolution (like `ext2` or `ext3` on Linux) may go undetected.
     99Tracd provides support for both Basic and Digest authentication. Digest is considered more secure. The examples below use Digest; to use Basic authentication, replace `--auth` with `--basic-auth` in the command line.
     101The general format for using authentication is:
     103 $ tracd -p port --auth="base_project_dir,password_file_path,realm" project_path
     106 * '''base_project_dir''': the base directory of the project specified as follows:
     107   * when serving multiple projects: ''relative'' to the `project_path`
     108   * when serving only a single project (`-s`): the name of the project directory
     109 Don't use an absolute path here as this won't work. ''Note:'' This parameter is case-sensitive even for environments on Windows.
     110 * '''password_file_path''': path to the password file
     111 * '''realm''': the realm name (can be anything)
     112 * '''project_path''': path of the project
     114 * **`--auth`** in the above means use Digest authentication, replace `--auth` with `--basic-auth` if you want to use Basic auth.  Although Basic authentication does not require a "realm", the command parser does, so the second comma is required, followed directly by the closing quote for an empty realm name.
     119 $ tracd -p 8080 \
     120   --auth="project1,/path/to/passwordfile," /path/to/project1
     123Of course, the password file can be be shared so that it is used for more than one project:
     125 $ tracd -p 8080 \
     126   --auth="project1,/path/to/passwordfile," \
     127   --auth="project2,/path/to/passwordfile," \
     128   /path/to/project1 /path/to/project2
     131Another way to share the password file is to specify "*" for the project name:
     133 $ tracd -p 8080 \
     134   --auth="*,/path/to/users.htdigest," \
     135   /path/to/project1 /path/to/project2
     138=== Basic Authorization: Using a htpasswd password file
     139This section describes how to use `tracd` with Apache .htpasswd files.
     141  Note: It is necessary (at least with Python 2.6) to install the fcrypt package in order to
     142  decode some htpasswd formats.  Trac source code attempt an `import crypt` first, but there
     143  is no such package for Python 2.6. Only `SHA-1` passwords (since Trac 1.0) work without this module.
     145To create a .htpasswd file use Apache's `htpasswd` command (see [#GeneratingPasswordsWithoutApache below] for a method to create these files without using Apache):
     147 $ sudo htpasswd -c /path/to/env/.htpasswd username
     149then for additional users:
     151 $ sudo htpasswd /path/to/env/.htpasswd username2
     154Then to start `tracd` run something like this:
     156 $ tracd -p 8080 --basic-auth="projectdirname,/fullpath/environmentname/.htpasswd,realmname" /fullpath/environmentname
     159For example:
     161 $ tracd -p 8080 --basic-auth="testenv,/srv/tracenv/testenv/.htpasswd,My Test Env" /srv/tracenv/testenv
     163''Note:'' You might need to pass "-m" as a parameter to htpasswd on some platforms (OpenBSD).
     165=== Digest authentication: Using a htdigest password file
     167If you have Apache available, you can use the htdigest command to generate the password file. Type 'htdigest' to get some usage instructions, or read [ this page] from the Apache manual to get precise instructions.  You'll be prompted for a password to enter for each user that you create.  For the name of the password file, you can use whatever you like, but if you use something like `users.htdigest` it will remind you what the file contains. As a suggestion, put it in your <projectname>/conf folder along with the [TracIni trac.ini] file.
     169Note that you can start tracd without the `--auth` argument, but if you click on the ''Login'' link you will get an error.
     171=== Generating Passwords Without Apache
     173Basic Authorization can be accomplished via this [ online HTTP Password generator] which also supports `SHA-1`.  Copy the generated password-hash line to the .htpasswd file on your system. Note that Windows Python lacks the "crypt" module that is the default hash type for htpasswd ; Windows Python can grok MD5 password hashes just fine and you should use MD5.
     175You can use this simple Python script to generate a '''digest''' password file:
     178from optparse import OptionParser
     179# The md5 module is deprecated in Python 2.5
     181    from hashlib import md5
     182except ImportError:
     183    from md5 import md5
     184realm = 'trac'
     186# build the options
     187usage = "usage: %prog [options]"
     188parser = OptionParser(usage=usage)
     189parser.add_option("-u", "--username",action="store", dest="username", type = "string",
     190                  help="the username for whom to generate a password")
     191parser.add_option("-p", "--password",action="store", dest="password", type = "string",
     192                  help="the password to use")
     193parser.add_option("-r", "--realm",action="store", dest="realm", type = "string",
     194                  help="the realm in which to create the digest")
     195(options, args) = parser.parse_args()
     197# check options
     198if (options.username is None) or (options.password is None):
     199   parser.error("You must supply both the username and password")
     200if (options.realm is not None):
     201   realm = options.realm
     203# Generate the string to enter into the htdigest file
     204kd = lambda x: md5(':'.join(x)).hexdigest()
     205print ':'.join((options.username, realm, kd([options.username, realm, options.password])))
     208Note: If you use the above script you must set the realm in the `--auth` argument to '''`trac`'''. Example usage (assuming you saved the script as
     211 $ python -u username -p password >> c:\digest.txt
     212 $ tracd --port 8000 --auth=proj_name,c:\digest.txt,trac c:\path\to\proj_name
     215==== Using `md5sum`
     216It is possible to use `md5sum` utility to generate digest-password file:
     222echo ${user}:${realm}:$(printf "${user}:${realm}:${password}" | md5sum - | sed -e 's/\s\+-//') > ${path_to_file}
     225== Reference
     227Here's the online help, as a reminder (`tracd --help`):
     229Usage: tracd [options] [projenv] ...
     232  --version             show program's version number and exit
     233  -h, --help            show this help message and exit
     234  -a DIGESTAUTH, --auth=DIGESTAUTH
     235                        [projectdir],[htdigest_file],[realm]
     236  --basic-auth=BASICAUTH
     237                        [projectdir],[htpasswd_file],[realm]
     238  -p PORT, --port=PORT  the port number to bind to
     239  -b HOSTNAME, --hostname=HOSTNAME
     240                        the host name or IP address to bind to
     241  --protocol=PROTOCOL   http|scgi|ajp|fcgi
     242  -q, --unquote         unquote PATH_INFO (may be needed when using ajp)
     243  --http10              use HTTP/1.0 protocol version instead of HTTP/1.1
     244  --http11              use HTTP/1.1 protocol version (default)
     245  -e PARENTDIR, --env-parent-dir=PARENTDIR
     246                        parent directory of the project environments
     247  --base-path=BASE_PATH
     248                        the initial portion of the request URL's "path"
     249  -r, --auto-reload     restart automatically when sources are modified
     250  -s, --single-env      only serve a single project without the project list
     251  -d, --daemonize       run in the background as a daemon
     252  --pidfile=PIDFILE     when daemonizing, file to which to write pid
     253  --umask=MASK          when daemonizing, file mode creation mask to use, in
     254                        octal notation (default 022)
     255  --group=GROUP         the group to run as
     256  --user=USER           the user to run as
     259Use the -d option so that tracd doesn't hang if you close the terminal window where tracd was started.
     261== Tips
     263=== Serving static content
     265If `tracd` is the only web server used for the project,
     266it can also be used to distribute static content
     267(tarballs, Doxygen documentation, etc.)
     269This static content should be put in the `$TRAC_ENV/htdocs` folder,
     270and is accessed by URLs like `<project_URL>/chrome/site/...`.
     272Example: given a `$TRAC_ENV/htdocs/software-0.1.tar.gz` file,
     273the corresponding relative URL would be `/<project_name>/chrome/site/software-0.1.tar.gz`,
     274which in turn can be written as `htdocs:software-0.1.tar.gz` (TracLinks syntax) or `[/<project_name>/chrome/site/software-0.1.tar.gz]` (relative link syntax).
     276=== Using tracd behind a proxy
     278In some situations when you choose to use tracd behind Apache or another web server.
     280In this situation, you might experience issues with redirects, like being redirected to URLs with the wrong host or protocol. In this case (and only in this case), setting the `[trac] use_base_url_for_redirect` to `true` can help, as this will force Trac to use the value of `[trac] base_url` for doing the redirects.
     282If you're using the AJP protocol to connect with `tracd` (which is possible if you have flup installed), then you might experience problems with double quoting. Consider adding the `--unquote` parameter.
     284See also [trac:TracOnWindowsIisAjp], [trac:TracNginxRecipe].
     286=== Authentication for tracd behind a proxy
     287It is convenient to provide central external authentication to your tracd instances, instead of using `--basic-auth`. There is some discussion about this in [trac:#9206].
     289Below is example configuration based on Apache 2.2, mod_proxy, mod_authnz_ldap.
     291First we bring tracd into Apache's location namespace.
     294<Location /project/proxified>
     295        Require ldap-group cn=somegroup, ou=Groups,
     296        Require ldap-user somespecificusertoo
     297        ProxyPass http://localhost:8101/project/proxified/
     298        # Turns out we don't really need complicated RewriteRules here at all
     299        RequestHeader set REMOTE_USER %{REMOTE_USER}s
     303Then we need a single file plugin to recognize HTTP_REMOTE_USER header as valid authentication source. HTTP headers like '''HTTP_FOO_BAR''' will get converted to '''Foo-Bar''' during processing. Name it something like '''''' and drop it into '''proxified/plugins''' directory:
     305from trac.core import *
     306from trac.config import BoolOption
     307from trac.web.api import IAuthenticator
     309class MyRemoteUserAuthenticator(Component):
     311    implements(IAuthenticator)
     313    obey_remote_user_header = BoolOption('trac', 'obey_remote_user_header', 'false',
     314               """Whether the 'Remote-User:' HTTP header is to be trusted for user logins
     315                (''since ??.??').""")
     317    def authenticate(self, req):
     318        if self.obey_remote_user_header and req.get_header('Remote-User'):
     319            return req.get_header('Remote-User')
     320        return None
     324Add this new parameter to your TracIni:
     328obey_remote_user_header = true
     332Run tracd:
     334tracd -p 8101 -r -s proxified --base-path=/project/proxified
     337Note that if you want to install this plugin for all projects, you have to put it in your [TracPlugins#Plugindiscovery global plugins_dir] and enable it in your global trac.ini.
     339Global config (e.g. `/srv/trac/conf/trac.ini`):
     342remote-user-auth.* = enabled
     344plugins_dir = /srv/trac/plugins
     346obey_remote_user_header = true
     349Environment config (e.g. `/srv/trac/envs/myenv`):
     352file = /srv/trac/conf/trac.ini
     355=== Serving a different base path than /
     356Tracd supports serving projects with different base urls than /<project>. The parameter name to change this is
     358 $ tracd --base-path=/some/path
     362See also: TracInstall, TracCgi, TracModPython, TracGuide, [trac:TracOnWindowsStandalone#RunningTracdasservice Running tracd.exe as a Windows service]