Changes between Initial Version and Version 1 of TracEnvironment


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Timestamp:
08/07/15 22:11:27 (5 years ago)
Author:
trac
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  • TracEnvironment

    v1 v1  
     1= The Trac Environment
     2[[TracGuideToc]]
     3[[PageOutline]]
     4
     5Trac uses a directory structure and a database for storing project data. The directory is referred to as the environment.
     6
     7== Creating an Environment
     8
     9A new Trac environment is created using [TracAdmin#initenv trac-admin's initenv]:
     10{{{#!sh
     11$ trac-admin /path/to/myproject initenv
     12}}}
     13
     14`trac-admin` will ask you for the name of the project and the database connection string, see below.
     15
     16=== Useful Tips
     17
     18 - Place your environment's directory on a filesystem which supports sub-second timestamps, as Trac monitors the timestamp of its configuration files and changes happening on a filesystem with too coarse-grained timestamp resolution may go undetected in Trac < 1.0.2. This is also true for the location of authentication files when using TracStandalone.
     19
     20 - The user under which the web server runs will require file system write permission to
     21 the environment directory and all the files inside. Please remember to set
     22 the appropriate permissions. The same applies to the source code repository,
     23 although the user under which Trac runs will only require write access to a Subversion repository created with the BDB file system; for other repository types, check the corresponding plugin's documentation.
     24 
     25 - `initenv`, when using an svn repository, does not imply that trac-admin will perform `svnadmin create` for the specified repository path. You need to perform the `svnadmin create` prior to `trac-admin initenv` if you're creating a new svn repository altogether with a new trac environment, otherwise you will see a message "Warning: couldn't index the repository" when initializing the environment.
     26
     27 - Non-ascii environment paths are not supported.
     28 
     29 - Also, it seems that project names with spaces can be problematic for authentication, see [trac:#7163].
     30
     31 - TracPlugins located in a [TracIni#inherit-section shared plugins folder] that is defined in an [TracIni#GlobalConfiguration inherited configuration] are currently not loaded during creation, and hence, if they need to create extra tables for example, you'll need to [TracUpgrade#UpgradetheTracEnvironment upgrade the environment] before being able to use it.
     32
     33== Database Connection Strings
     34
     35Trac supports [http://sqlite.org/ SQLite], [http://www.postgresql.org/ PostgreSQL] and [http://mysql.com/ MySQL] database backends. The default is SQLite, which is probably sufficient for most projects. The database file is then stored in the environment directory, and can easily be [wiki:TracBackup backed up] together with the rest of the environment.
     36
     37Note that if the username or password of the connection string (if applicable) contains the `:`, `/` or `@` characters, they need to be URL encoded.
     38
     39=== SQLite Connection String
     40The connection string for an SQLite database is:
     41{{{
     42sqlite:db/trac.db
     43}}}
     44where `db/trac.db` is the path to the database file within the Trac environment.
     45
     46=== PostgreSQL Connection String
     47If you want to use PostgreSQL instead, you'll have to use a different connection string. For example, to connect to a PostgreSQL database on the same machine called `trac` for user `johndoe` with the password `letmein` use:
     48{{{
     49postgres://johndoe:letmein@localhost/trac
     50}}}
     51
     52If PostgreSQL is running on a non-standard port, for example 9342, use:
     53{{{
     54postgres://johndoe:letmein@localhost:9342/trac
     55}}}
     56
     57On UNIX, you might want to select a UNIX socket for the transport, either the default socket as defined by the PGHOST environment variable:
     58{{{
     59postgres://user:password@/database
     60}}}
     61or a specific one:
     62{{{
     63postgres://user:password@/database?host=/path/to/socket/dir
     64}}}
     65
     66Note that with PostgreSQL you will have to create the database before running `trac-admin initenv`.
     67
     68See the [http://www.postgresql.org/docs/ PostgreSQL documentation] for detailed instructions on how to administer [http://postgresql.org PostgreSQL].
     69Generally, the following is sufficient to create a database user named `tracuser` and a database named `trac`:
     70{{{#!sh
     71$ createuser -U postgres -E -P tracuser
     72$ createdb -U postgres -O tracuser -E UTF8 trac
     73}}}
     74When running `createuser` you will be prompted for the password for the user 'tracuser'. This new user will not be a superuser, will not be allowed to create other databases and will not be allowed to create other roles. These privileges are not needed to run a trac instance. If no password is desired for the user, simply remove the `-P` and `-E` options from the `createuser` command.  Also note that the database should be created as UTF8. LATIN1 encoding causes errors trac's use of unicode in trac.  SQL_ASCII also seems to work.
     75
     76Under some default configurations (debian) one will have run the `createuser` and `createdb` scripts as the `postgres` user.  For example:
     77{{{#!sh
     78$ sudo su - postgres -c 'createuser -U postgres -S -D -R -E -P tracuser'
     79$ sudo su - postgres -c 'createdb -U postgres -O tracuser -E UTF8 trac'
     80}}}
     81
     82Trac uses the `public` schema by default, but you can specify a different schema in the connection string:
     83{{{
     84postgres://user:pass@server/database?schema=yourschemaname
     85}}}
     86
     87=== MySQL Connection String
     88
     89The format of the MySQL connection string is similar to those for PostgreSQL, with the `postgres` scheme being replaced by `mysql`. For example, to connect to a MySQL database on the same machine called `trac` for user `johndoe` with password `letmein`, the MySQL connection string is:
     90{{{
     91mysql://johndoe:letmein@localhost:3306/trac
     92}}}
     93
     94== Source Code Repository
     95
     96Since Trac 0.12, a single environment can be connected to more than one repository. There are many different ways to connect repositories to an environment, see TracRepositoryAdmin. This page also details the various attributes that can be set for a repository, such as `type`, `url`, `description`.
     97
     98In Trac 0.12 `trac-admin` no longer asks questions related to repositories. Therefore, by default Trac is not connected to any source code repository, and the ''Browse Source'' toolbar item will not be displayed.
     99You can also explicitly disable the `trac.versioncontrol.*` components, which are otherwise still loaded.
     100{{{#!ini
     101[components]
     102trac.versioncontrol.* = disabled
     103}}}
     104
     105For some version control systems, it is possible to specify not only the path to the repository, but also a ''scope'' within the repository. Trac will then only show information related to the files and changesets below that scope. The Subversion backend for Trac supports this. For other types, check the corresponding plugin's documentation.
     106
     107Example of a configuration for a Subversion repository used as the default repository:
     108{{{#!ini
     109[trac]
     110repository_type = svn
     111repository_dir = /path/to/your/repository
     112}}}
     113
     114The configuration for a scoped Subversion repository would be:
     115{{{#!ini
     116[trac]
     117repository_type = svn
     118repository_dir = /path/to/your/repository/scope/within/repos
     119}}}
     120
     121== Directory Structure
     122
     123An environment directory will usually consist of the following files and directories:
     124
     125 * `README` - Brief description of the environment.
     126 * `VERSION` - Environment version identifier.
     127 * `attachments` - Attachments to wiki pages and tickets are stored here.
     128 * `conf`
     129  * `trac.ini` - Main configuration file. See TracIni.
     130 * `db`
     131  * `trac.db` - The SQLite database, if you are using SQLite.
     132 * `htdocs` - Directory containing web resources, which can be referenced in Genshi templates using `/htdocs/site/...` URLs.
     133 * `log` - Default directory for log files, if logging is turned on and a relative path is given.
     134 * `plugins` - Environment-specific [wiki:TracPlugins plugins].
     135 * `templates` - Custom Genshi environment-specific templates.
     136  * `site.html` - Method to customize header, footer, and style, described in TracInterfaceCustomization#SiteAppearance.
     137
     138=== Caveat: don't confuse a ''Trac environment directory'' with the ''source code repository directory'' #Caveat
     139
     140This is a common beginners' mistake.
     141It happens that the structure for a Trac environment is loosely modelled after the Subversion repository directory
     142structure, but those are two disjoint entities and they are not and ''must not'' be located at the same place.
     143
     144----
     145See also: TracAdmin, TracBackup, TracIni, TracGuide